Clinical Trials & Research

The findings of a new Swedish study posted to the Preprints with The Lancet* server found that two COVID-19 vaccine doses provided effective long-term protection against infection before Omicron, but less protection against Omicron infection (dropping to 43% by week four and no protection by week 14). Furthermore, two COVID-19 vaccine doses provided substantial long-term protection against
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Neutrophils, the most abundant type of white blood cell, are the body’s first line of defense against infection. Foreign pathogens can stress the body and activate neutrophils. When activated, neutrophils employ various weapons to protect the body. But if overactivated, these weapons can damage the body’s own tissues. Lung tissue is saturated with blood vessels,
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New UMBC-led research in Frontiers in Microbiology suggests that viruses are using information from their environment to “decide” when to sit tight inside their hosts and when to multiply and burst out, killing the host cell. The work has implications for antiviral drug development. A virus’s ability to sense its environment, including elements produced by
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Infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli (ESKAPEE pathogens), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, is a significant public health threat to the global population. However, at present, no drugs are available that can effectively resist MDR organisms. Related Stories Study: Engineered peptide PLG0206 overcomes limitations of a challenging antimicrobial drug class. Image Credit: Christoph
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Due to the exponential increase in the manufacturing, use, and disposal of plastics, the pollution of these products continues to overwhelm ecosystems throughout the world. Following their release into the environment, these places eventually degrade into microplastics (MPs) that can cause significant harm to organisms. A new Science of the Total Environment journal paper reports
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In a recent study posted to the Research Square* preprint server, researchers explored the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in dogs and cats. Numerous beneficial effects of pet ownership, including benefits to mental health, have been scientifically established. Companion animals account for 60% of all animals reported to World Organization for
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In a recent study published in the journal PLoS ONE, researchers evaluated the temporal shedding patterns of coronavirus (CoV) in Eidolon helvum, the straw-colored fruit bat. E. helvum is a pteropodid distributed widely in tropical Africa that can migrate thousands of kilometers; they roost in trees to form dynamic colonies, hosting millions. The bat is
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The monkeypox virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus. This genus comprises other viruses such as camelpox, cowpox, raccoonpox, skunkpox, variola, and vaccinia. While monkeypox was initially discovered in 1958 in monkeys, rodents are known to be its natural reservoir, and humans and other primates are often incidental hosts. Human infection was first
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This study is led by Dr. Ruifu Yang, Dr. Zongmin Du (State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology) and Dr. Fan Bai (Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center, School of Life Sciences, Peking University). Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), the causative agent of plague, has caused millions of deaths in three worldwide
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Microbiomes refer to the collective genomes of microorganisms living in a particular environment. The microbiota refers to the community of microbes themselves. For example, the human gastrointestinal tract contains approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (primarily bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, and protozoa). These microorganisms play essential roles in immunity and energy metabolism in humans, extending from
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A recent Viruses review provides an overview of how the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome has changed throughout the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To this end, the researchers analyzed all publicly available SARS-CoV-2 genomes, 97,437 randomly selected for further analysis. Study: The Rise and Fall of SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Ongoing
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In a recent study published in the journal Microbiology, researchers demonstrated that incorporating Manuka honey into nebulized antibiotic treatment could effectively combat respiratory infections due to Mycobacterium abscessusus, offering a novel new therapeutic strategy for M. abscessus management. Study: In vitro synergy between manuka honey and amikacin against Mycobacterium abscessus complex shows potential for nebulisation therapy.
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Long-lasting immune cells that specifically recognize the SARS-CoV-2 virus were found in the noses of people who were infected following vaccination. These virus-specific T cells, which were not present in those who had only been vaccinated, are expected to confer an additional layer of protection against COVID-19, according to scientists from Duke-NUS Medical School in
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In a recent study published in the journal Nature, researchers explored the neural basis for fat preference and identified receptors and neuronal elements mediating its development. Study: Gut-Brain Circuits for Fat Preference. Image Credit: Pikovit / Shutterstock Background The current global obesity epidemic is a significant health problem. A high body-mass index (BMI) is a risk factor
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Chlamydia, the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections, evades detection and elimination inside human cells by use of a cloaking device. But Duke University researchers have grasped the hem of that invisibility cloak and now hope they can pull it apart. To enter the cell and peacefully reproduce, many pathogenic bacteria, including Chlamydia, cloak
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A team of researchers from the IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology) has designed in silico “molecular probes” able to track the progress of a protein that misbehaves in different neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD). The probes can be used to study the behavior of the
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A University of Cincinnati study found administering an immunotherapy drug before surgery for oral cavity cancer did not lead to increased rates of complications during and after surgery. The findings were published Aug. 25 in the journal JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery. Alice Tang, MD, first author on the study, said the research
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The mental health system is increasingly reliant on psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) to meet the psychiatric needs of Medicare patients, according to a new study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. We were surprised by the degree to which PMHNPs are the de facto mental health prescribers in
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Due to their immunosuppressive properties, systemic glucocorticoids are estimated to be used by 0.5% to 3% of the population annually. Glucocorticoids are effective, but their use comes with some significant musculoskeletal and cardiovascular side effects. A recent BMJ Open study conducted a cross-sectional analysis to test the hypothesis that the usage of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids was
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A multidisciplinary team of Indiana University researchers have discovered that the motion of chromatin, the material that DNA is made of, can help facilitate effective repair of DNA damage in the human nucleus — a finding that could lead to improved cancer diagnosis and treatment. Their findings were recently published in the Proceedings of the
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In a recent study, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, and others, have characterised the new omicron variant BA.2.75, comparing its ability to evade antibodies against current and previous variants. The study, published in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases, suggests that BA.2.75 is not more resistant to antibodies than the currently dominating BA.5, which
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This prespecified subgroup analysis of East Asian adults who participated in a phase 3 clinical trial of belimumab added to standard therapy vs. placebo added to standard therapy for lupus nephritis shows earlier and more sustained improvement in kidney outcomes with the addition of belimumab. Related Stories Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe complication of
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Historically, monkeypox outbreaks have been primarily found in Central and West Africa. This zoonotic infection is caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), which belongs to the Poxviridae family of the Orthopoxvirus genus. Until 2022, the incidence of monkeypox outside Africa was a rare event. The recent detection of monkeypox outside Africa was found to be linked to
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers assessed the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2.75 variant compared to pre-existing variants. Study: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 variant may be much more infective than preexisting variants. Image Credit: Fit Ztudio/Shutterstock As of July 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 variant
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In a recent study published in the Viruses journal, scientists explored human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation among acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Study: Epstein–Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation in Acute COVID-19 Patients. Image Credit: Alexandros Michailidis/Shutterstock Background Many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients exhibit a complicated constellation of features
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